I piloted a scheme to fix this problem. My pilot scheme used one topic of the C1 course, which was broken down to help students learn for themselves. This unit was based on principles taken from video games.
All lessons and homework were taken up with this unit for about a cycle. Students were told to ask each other for help, look at the text book, go online, or read the notes. I did not help any of them until they had tried all of the other avenues first. In fact, my time was taken up marking the assessments and giving feedback. This was the best part for me, it meant that I had whole lessons to give truly personalised feedback one on one to students.
They demonstrated a deeper understanding in this topic. Students could ask more insightful questions and presented a far better working attitude. Following this project, my class started asking questions in class and interacting with their learning environment far more productively, they started coming to me for help outside of class, some began reading ahead using their text books properly. Obviously, this model is not for every unit and not for every student, but it did change some attitudes towards leaning permanently, so in my eyes it was a success.
Below is some quotes from my students following their evaluation of this unit.